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The Assyrians had been the proud inheritors of an ancient and glorious past. In the end, however, it was the scythe wielded by the Ottomans that cut off the continuity of this historical nation that had begun with the dawn of civilization. Its ruthless blade cut them off from their ancestral lands and reduced them to desperation and annihilation. Although their property, homes, families, churches and communities were unjustly broken and scattered like dust to the winds, their spirit and will to live were not. Ultimately, their steadfast belief in a merciful God brought them alive through their hellish ordeal and renewed their belief in themselves and in the power of love to overcome all obstacles, even the unmerciful peoples who chose and demonstrated enmity against them.

I will relate the horrible fate of the Assyrians during World War One. Then I will demonstrate that it was a peculiar mind set that built up and gained momentum among the regular and irregular Ottomans against their Christian subjects, which drove them to the most ungodly acts of cruelty and oppression against their neighbors and fellow men. Even the most powerless Christians who had no political aspirations whatsoever were not exempt from denigrating atrocities.

Geographical Location of the Assyrians at the beginning of the 20th Century

At the turn of the century, the Assyrian people, the torchbearers of the earliest civilization in the world, and the living remnant of over 6,000 years of history in the region, lived under the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Their region was roughly known as “Northern Mesopotamia,” which includes: south and southeastern present-day Turkey; [they were spread from Miyafarqin in the north, Bitlis, Siirt, from Urfa (Edessa) to Adana, Diyarbekir, Mardin, Nisibin, Tur Abdin (over 100 villages), Bohtan, and in the region of Tiyari and Hakkari from the Turko-Persian border in the East to Tur Abdin in the West. Under Persian rule, they were mostly in western Azerbaijan, at Urmia and the Salamas districts. The other Assyrians (Syriac people) were spread over places in present day Iraq, mainly in northern Iraq: through the plains of Nineveh, Hadyab and the mountain region to the south of Tiyari and Hakkari, Syria, Lebanon, and in the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia) which lie outside the scope of study in this conference.

Ecclesiastical Diversity Among the Assyrians

Like most peoples, the Assyrians have various ecclesiastical traditions. The Assyrians of the Church of the East include: Orthodox (or Nestorians), Catholic (Chaldeans) and Protestants. Similarly, the Assyrians of the West Syriac Church encompasses several traditions: Orthodox (or Jacobites), Catholic, Melkites (Rum Orthodox & Rum Catholic.), Maronites, and Protestants.

By the turn of the century, and due to nationalistic awakening, most members of the above-mentioned churches preferred to be identified with one nationalistic name, Assyrian, rather than by the various names of the church traditions.

Generally speaking, the Assyrians of the Church of the East were distributed in the Eastern part of “Northern Mesopotamia,” while the Assyrians of the West Syriac Churches lived in the middle and Western part of “Northern Mesopotamia.”

Relationship With their Neighbors

All the areas inhabited by Assyrians had Muslim populations as their closest neighbors: Arabs, Kurds, Turks and Persians. While the Assyrians intermingled with the Ottoman Muslims in the cities and learned their language(s), the Assyrians of the mountains remained isolated but still surrounded by Muslims (Turks and Kurds). Over a period of a few generations, and as a defensive mechanism, most Assyrians of the cities forgot their own language and used the language and adopted the customs of their Muslim neighbors.

Although previously the Assyrian population had numbered in the millions, due to centuries of persecutions and massacres, they were reduced from majority of the indigenous inhabitant of the region to scattered minorities. By the late nineteenth century, the Assyrians in Hakkari, Salma and Urmia numbered only around 400,000 to 500,000. A similar number was counted for the Assyrians (of West Syriac traditions) of Tur Abdin, Mardin and other “western” cities.

Unlike the Kurds, Arabs and Turks, who share the same religion, the Assyrians remained distinguished from their neighbors by their own Christian religion. This distinction was never to their advantage, even in case of the cities, when the Christians tried to adapt by learning and speaking the language of their Muslim neighbors. Over a long period of time, the Christians, as dhimmi, had to observe certain restrictions as a means of subjugation and to emphasize their status as second class citizens of the Empire. As a matter of fact, until recently, the Muslims were calling their Christian neighbors “Gawer,” which translates as “infidels.” A British consular, who reported on the Muslim-Christian relationship, said: “During a period of nearly 300 years, Christians were subjected to much oppression and cruelty. For them, no other law but the caprice of their masters existed.” There were, however, less strident periods where such restrictions went uninforced in some localities, and interfaith relations were fairly cordial.

With the weakening of the central government in Istanbul after the seventeenth century, the security of the local Christians was shaken. The only option open to the Assyrians was to appease the strongest Muslim neighbor through payments of tribute in exchange for protection. In remote districts, feudal rights continued to exist until the late nineteenth century. These so-called “rights” were described by a British consular as “blackmail.” The Consul Chermside relates that “the chief alone raises blackmail on Christians; but in other cases, it is a tribal right, which is asserted by periodical forays; the tax in some places amounted to as much as one-fourth of the produce.” The peasants were compelled to be serfs, to cultivate their Master’s field without any compensation for their labor.

Before World War One, the Christian population of the Ottoman Empire was terrorized because of a series of massacres against Christians from the Balkans to Armenia, Lebanon, Syria including “N. Mesopotamia.” The concept of Jihad or “the holy war” was exploited by providing excuses for constant raiding and annihilation of the innocent non-Muslim villages.

Before World War One, Russia had advanced in the Persian territories reaching Urmia, where many of the Assyrians resided. The local Assyrians regarded the new troops—comparatively speaking-- as liberators. Indeed, the Assyrians felt for the first time free from paying tribute to the Muslims in exchange for their shaky security. Moreover, they hoped that the official “dhimmi” status, and the humiliating label, “Gawer: Infidel” would be gone forever.

Beginning of W.W. I, and the Assyrian Dilemma

In November of 1914, the Ottoman army entered the war on the side of the Central Powers (Germany and Austro-Hungary). Thus, a new front was opened against Russia in the East and North. A month later, and under the Ottoman offensive against Russian forces in northwest Persia, the Russian forces withdrew from Northwest Persia (including Urmia, Salamas) on January 2, 1915. For fear of the Ottomans, who either could not or would not differentiate between the Russians and local Christians, most of the young Assyrians, estimated at 15,000, accompanied the Russian troops in their retreat, leaving behind their families, children and elders spread around 70 villages. Thus, the Ottoman troops (Turks and Kurds) occupied the whole Azerbaijan region, including the Assyrian lands. The Ottoman domination of this region continued for five more months because the Russians re-occupied the same region.

What Happened During this Five Months?

An overwhelming number of documents have been produced about the genocide committed against the defenseless Assyrians in this region. Immediately after the retreat of the Russians, 10,000 Kurdish irregulars followed by 20,000 Turkish troops, led by Djevdet Bey, the governor of Van Province, entered the villages and began ransacking and massacring the defenseless inhabitants. Thousands left behind everything and sought refuge at the various missionary compounds of the French and the Americans. After one month Djevdet Bey declared that: “We have made a clean sweep of the Armenians and the Assyro-Chaldeans of Azerbaijan.” The chief English language source covering this period is The British Blue Book. Of 684 pages of this Book, 104 pages are devoted to the Assyrian massacres and are divided into 21 documents. The Blue Book describes such moments, as I quote: “On one side, the Kurds invaded the plain, followed by the Turkish troops. On the other side, the Muslim villagers began sacking, massacring and raping. Those villages, which did not defend themselves, suffered for the same reason as those who opposed a resistance. A certain Miss Platt, a missionary in Urmia, witnessed that the Turkish consul extorted 6,000 Tomans from the Assyrians (Assyro-Chaldeans) in exchange for their security. A few days later, that very consul imprisoned all the Assyrians who were refugees in the French mission; 48 were shot to death and five were hung. The reports even reached as far away as the U.S.: President Wilson sent a special demand to the Turkish government that American interests in Urmia, especially the missionary efforts, not be endangered. The total number of Assyrians killed in this five month period was 5,000. The Blue Book concludes: “It is safe to say that a part of this outrage and ruin was directly due to the Turks, and that none of it would have happened except for them.”

The Russian Victory and the Assyrians Further Dilemma

In May 1915, the Russians recaptured the territories, which they had been lost to the Ottomans five months earlier (including Urmia and Salamas). The local Assyrians regained some relief from the atrocities of the Ottomans. This time, the Assyrians under Russian domination allied themselves with the Russian forces there. In a real sense, however, the Assyrians had no choice but to follow the desire of the powerful Russian forces. And in an act of retaliation, the Ottomans turned against their Assyrian subjects inside the Ottoman territories. All the good-will gestures of the Assyrians towards their Ottoman authorities, and their attempts to distance themselves from the Assyrians beyond the Ottoman border by means of loyalty and church affiliation everything proved futile in the end.

The Ottoman Interior Minister, Tallat, and War Minister, Evan Pasha urged “purification of Turkey, and in the process, the elimination of the “unaccommodating” Christians. Thus, Djevdad Bey turned his defeated forces against local Assyrian Christians. Djevdad, nicknamed Kassab tabouri (battalion of butchers), massacred the entire Christian population of Siirt and its environs. Over 70 Christian villages were sacked and burned, and all the clergy including the famous scholar Bishop Addai Scheri, fell victim to Djevdad’s sword. Wherever there was an Assyrian presence, the population was decimated. This happened from the mountains of Hakkari (which bordered the newly created Russian frontier) all the way west to Tur Abdin and Mardin, including Dyarbekir (Amida), Bitlis, Urfa (Edessa), Adana, Siirt, and Jezirat Ibn Omar. The Assyrians throughout the region were deported forcibly or massacred, their houses destroyed, and their churches, monuments and cemeteries pillaged and desecrated with human excrement. A report in L’Asie Française of that time is quoted as saying: “The martyrdom of the Assyrians who have all been virtually massacred in the district of Dyarbekir and in the region of Siirt recalls in the most vivid way the Armenian slaughter. … Over 25,000 Assyrians were massacred by Turks and Kurds, or died of hunger or other causes inflicted on the deportation routes in 1915.”

In desperation, the Assyrians of Hakkari (bordering Russian frontier) debated two choices. The first was to continue to show allegiance to the Ottomans and endure constant humiliation from the Muslims (Ottomans) with slower decimation; this choice was represented by Nemrod Shimmon, the cousin of the Assyrian (Nestorian) Patriarch. The second was to venture upon a new opportunity of alliance with the Russians, with the risk of quicker decimation. Under an intense propaganda of enticement from the Russians, the tribal chiefs decided to protect themselves by playing the “Christian,” Russian, solidarity card.

While the Assyrians of Hakkari, mostly from the church of the East (Nestorians) sided with the Russians, the rest of the Assyrians throughout the Ottoman “N. Mesopotamia” had only one choice, that was to demonstrate their unquestioned allegiance to the Sublime Port.

The Ottoman Reaction

The response of the Sublime Port was speedy, first against the Christians of Hakkari. Regular Ottoman troops, supported by irregular Kurds from the North, and the Ottoman troops of Hayder Pasha (Mosul governor-general) from the south simultaneously launched attacks against Assyrians in their mountain refuges. The furies of their attacks left the Assyrians in tatters and hurry to their exodus. Thus, a long exodus under heavy, prolonged attack began from Hakkari toward Salamas (in Persia) to join their fellow Assyrians under the rule of the Russians. The hardships of this forced march to safety over 150 miles caused about one third of them to perish.

For a year and a half, the Assyrians under Russian domination enjoyed security and even prosperity. In April, 1917, the American missionary in Urmia wrote to his Board that the Assyrian church problem was resolving itself. Moreover, Assyrians felt positive in that they had endured and the Church had stability.

But what about the rest of the Assyrians (West Syriac Churches: Orthodox, Catholic, Protestants & Chaldeans) in the middle and west of “N. Mesopotamia”?

Realizing their pending fate, the terrified Christians made every effort possible to appease their Ottoman masters, whether through distancing themselves from other Christian denominations, namely, the Armenians and Assyrians, or showing neutrality and loyalty in a variety of ways. For example, the Patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox church wrote a telegram to the grand vizier, condemning the “Armenian disturbances,” and thanking “his Majesty for the protection he has ever accorded to it, as also to our Mussulman compatriots.” Finally, the Patriarch begged, -- and I quote: “under these circumstances, we can but appeal to the Sovereign, our sole refuge, to protect us in his mercy.”

Meanwhile, the language of “the holy war,” Jihad, aroused Muslims against their powerless Christian neighbors. Between the so-called “acts of mobs,” and direct orders of the Ottoman authorities, one third of the Assyrian people of various denominations were killed. The rest remained “a hostage people,” subjected to all sorts of humiliation, dispersion and annihilation. The following Syrian Patriarch, I. Ephrem, reported (and I quote): “the ‘rumor’ was that the Armenians had rebelled; in reality the mobs were calling for extermination of “all the Christians.”

While thousands of documents and eyewitness testimonies abound, the American newspaper, New York Times, during W.W. I, contains hundreds of reports about the Ottoman atrocities against its Christian subjects, and several U.S. government protests and petitions to the Ottoman authorities concerning attacks against Christian innocents. Among many such reports was an item on December 20, 1916, in the New York Times stating, “Syrian Patriarch Slain: Murdered in His Residence in [Mardin] by Band of Turks”. Elsewhere, the Newspaper warns that the Christian population has been terrorized and is in a starving condition. Russian Final Retreat and the Tragedy of the Assyrians in the East In October of 1917, the Bolshevik Revolution disturbed the balance of the allied position in general, and the relative safety of the Assyrians in the East in particular. In an attempt to contain the vacuum created by withdrawal of the Russian forces, and to deal with the Assyrians, a meeting of the allied representatives was held in Urmia in December 1917. At this meeting, Captain Gracey (of the British Intelligence Service) pledged to protect the Assyrians and provide them with autonomy, provided that the Assyrians would fight and hold to their units until the arrival of the British forces.

The task set for the Assyrians to accomplish was not easy. While they had not yet been attacked by regular Ottoman troops, the Assyrians fought continuously against Turkish and Kurdish irregulars. On February 1918, and on the advice of Captain Gracey, the Assyrian Patriarch, Mar Benjamin Shammun, sought reconciliation with the Kurdish Ismail Agha Simko, a former Russian ally. Gracey’s aim was to convince Simko, the most Kurdish tribal chief in Persia, to side ­ as the Assyrians ­ with the Allies. Responding to the Patriarch’s initiative, Simko suggested a meeting. Thus, the patriarch along with some Russian officers went to the meeting at Simko’s residence. “Everything seemed to be going fine,” and upon the conclusion of the meeting, Simko escorted the Patriarch and kissed his hand; but soon Simko signaled to hidden guards who began firing point blank on the Patriarch and his companions. The Assyrians reacted to this treacherous murder of their Patriarch by launching an attack on Simko’s village. But Simko had anticipated their reaction and had planned his offensive against the Assyrian villages when their fighters were away. In Khoy, Simko killed 3,800 women, children and elders.

Soon after, the regular Ottoman troops approached the region and began a series of systematic attacks on Urmia. Surrounded by such adversaries, the Assyrians had to defend their units until the arrival of the British. At this time, Armenian refugees arrived to reinforce the Assyrian units and sided with them for their common defense. Surprisingly, their desperate resistance succeeded to the extent that the British troops coming from southern Mesopotamia were able to establish strategic points in Persia, but they did not make it to Urmia.

The situation at this stage reached an impasse. The only choice to avoid extinction was another mass exodus of Assyrians, directed first toward Hamadan (in Iran), then to Baquba (in present Iraq) where the British troops were campaigning. Some 100,000 Assyrians left Urmia, leaving behind 14,000 elderly or indisposed others unable to move, who were massacred by the Ottoman invaders.

In the aftermath of the war, the Assyrians were denied the right to settle or even reenter their ancestral homelands in Hakkari region. In this regard, the Turkish consul general at Baghdad declared on June 25, 1928: “The Turkish amnesty law does not cover the Assyrians who would not be allowed under any circumstances to reenter Turkey; that any Assyrian who attempts to enter Turkey would be punished.” Furthermore, the Deputy of Iraq, Chalabi Thabit stated before his Parliament: “The Assyrians are a despicable and corrupt people, who have been sheltered and fed in Iraq. The hope was that they would become loyal and faithful subjects but instead, now sated. They react to our hospitality with ingratitude by claiming ridiculous rights from their host. .. We can no longer wait, the cup is full. We insist that our government adopt appropriate measures to repress them.”


The Assyrians of the East had no choice but to work out their fate with the Russians. By doing so, they lost one third of their people. On the other hand, the Assyrians of the West Syriac Churches, who until the end remained loyal to the Ottoman authorities, which was their only choice any way, were humiliated, dispersed and also lost one third of its people. Finally, when Syria was under the French mandate, the Turks granted “permission … to all Christians” to leave Turkey, creating another flight of refugees. Assyrian Christians (of East and West Syriac Churches) in large numbers fled their land, bringing to an end their centuries old history in Tur Abdin, Mardin, Adana, Urfa, and others. The vast majority of them were helpless victims, and innocent of all political ambitions.

Partially, this is the story of the Assyrian victims by their Ottoman victimizers. The whole story, however, stems from wrong political and religious practice. In this case, it was the Ottomans, their desire to rule by purity of race and elimination of perceived opposition with all its dangerous consequences, but it could be any country of any religion. Through intentional education which perpetrates the inherent superiority of one race or religion over coexisting races and religions, the group in power assumes control by establishing a relationship of servitude among its minority groups. It thereby justifies any action that serves its interest and most especially those actions which reinforce the master/slave or superior/inferior status. When resources are short, or situations direful, the superior group will always feel justified in plundering and even eliminating the inferior groups, whether by perceived divine right or simply by perceived threat to their own existence. In this context, any discussion of “equality” is a meaningless bandying of semantics. The Assyrians are not the first victims in history, and unfortunately, they will not be the last. The Assyrians hope that countries harboring such a past, anywhere, and of any religion, would create a team of experts and objective scholars ­ not ambitious politicians or apologists, to carve out new spaces for peace and reconciliation between their peoples and religions. As such, the scythe can clear away the dead, useless material and make ready for new life. With objective and humanitarian evaluation of the past, future evils may be forestalled and a peaceful global civilization prevail. 

Responses to Detractors

In response to one questioner who dismissed the genocide because “of the kind nature of the Turks,” the author commanded the kindness of most of the Turks, as it is the case among all people of the world. However, the kindness does not dismiss the fact of the Ottoman genocide against Assyrians and others. Moreover, the kind Turks and the Turkish authorities are required to stop the negative rhetoric against other people in the days of peace. For example, the following extracts are taken from an article by Nihal Atsiz published in the June 1967 issue of the nationalist journal, Otuken. ­I quote: “We Turks have shed rivers of blood to take possession of these lands; we had to uproot Georgians, Armenians and Byzantine Greeks.. The Turkish race is very patient, but when it is really angered it is like a roaring lion and nothing can stop it. Ask the Armenians whom we are, and let them draw the appropriate conclusion.”

Another questioner argued that mostly they were the Kurds and not the Turks to be hold responsible for the Assyrian genocide. The author responded that all the Turks, Kurds and Christians were part of the Ottoman Empire and under its authorities; in effect, the Kurd’s role against Assyrians was encouraged and supported by the Turkish authorities.

Other responses to the denial:

Denial is the last stage of genocide. It provides a moral justification for its possible repetition.
The denial of genocide is deeply rooted in the human psyche, but the danger of denying it is the possibility of its recurrence. I hope that God strikes us with genocidal amnesia so that people could forget and forgive; the problem, however, unless it is consciously and properly solved, the genocidal cycle will not be prevented. E. Southgate, Narrative of a Visit to the Syrian [Jacobite] Church of Mesopotamia (New York: Appleton, 1844) 87.

Among many sources in different languages:

Cf. A. Yohannan, The Death of a Nation: The Ever Persecuted Nestorians or Assyrian Christians (New York and London: Knickerbocker, 1916) 85-88.

British Consul James Zohrab reported to his ambassador in Constantinople on July 22, 1860; Cf. Bat Yeor, 25. See also John Joseph, The Nestorians and their Muslim Neighbors: A Study of Western Influence on their Relations (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961) 130; Joseph drew his source from “Correspondence Respecting the Constitutional Movement in Turkey, 1908,” Parliamentary Papers, 105 (1909), Cmd. 4529, no. 99; Roderic H. Davison, “Turkish Attitudes Concerning Christian-Muslim Equality in the Nineteenth Century,” The American Historical Review 59 (1954) 844-864.

British Government, enclosure 4 in no. 103 (Diarbekir, 20, April 1882) 146; Cf. J. Joseph, Muslim-Christians Relations and Inter-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East: A Case of the Jacobites in an Age of Transition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983) 26. I. J. Benjamin, Eight years in Asia and Africa from 1846-1855 (Hannover: 1859) 96, 102-3.

In the national archives of the British, French and American states, there is a large collection of documents related to the genocide against Assyrians. The Diplomatic French archives, for example, included 45 volumes on the Assyro-Chaldean question from 1915 to 1940. Document entitled, “Arnold Toynbee Papers and Documents on the Treatment of Armenians and Assyrian Christians by the Turks, 1915-1916, in the Ottoman Empire and North-West Persia.”

Eyewitnesses in Urmia, Salamas, Hakkari, Bohtan and Tabris report all the documents. The eyewitnesses include seven American missionaries, three American consular representatives, two American journalists, one British missionary and four Assyrian personalities.

Blue Book, 102. Blue Book, 131. Blue Book, 134.

“Urmiah,” The Independent, 82 (1915) 57, Cf. John Joseph, The Nestorians and Their Muslim Neighbors, 133.

Blue Book, 103.

Blue Book, 104.

He was the military governor of Van and brother-in-law of Enver Pasha. L’Asie Française, August-November (1919) 238. See also Andre N. Mandelstam, Le sort de l’Empire Ottoman (Paris: 1917) 335.

Surma d’Bait Mar Shimun, Assyrian Church Customs and the Murder of Mar Shimun (n.p: 1983) 72-73.

Letter to the Board, dated April 17, 1917; quoted from J. Joseph, The Nestorians, 137.

Echos d’Orient, 424, no. 187. Concerning the Patriarch, it was reported that he was collaborator with the Ottoman authorities who helped him elected as a Patriarch; See J. Joseph, Muslim-Christian Relations, 92-93.

Two Documents in the Archive of the British Foreign Ministry; Cf. Y. Ibrahem, Mar Ignatius Ephrem (Damascus: 1996) 68-69.

I. Ephrem Barsum, Tarikh Tur Abdin [in Syriac], translated into Arabic by B. Bahnam, (Lebanon: 1963) 366; Cf. I. Armalah, al-Qasara fi Nakabat al-Masara (np.: nd) 43.

See the attached report, New York Times, July, 7, 1916.

See the attached report, New York Times, Dec. 20, 1916.

New York Times, Dec. 20, 1916, p. 4, col. 1.

See G. M. Dooman, Who are These Assyrians? (London: 1942) 19-20; Gracey letter reads:

"Dear Friends, This is the first opportunity I have had to have the honor of being present with you. I wish now to speak to you with reference to the purpose and the plan of the Allied powers, concerning the small and oppressed nations such as yours. This great war that has now raged for so long, and is still raging at tremendous cost in blood and material to the Allies, has but one main object, and that is, the emancipation of small and oppressed nations such as yours. You have been oppressed beyond measure. You have now come to the verge of extinction as a people and as a language, thanks to the misdeeds of the Turks, assisted by their allies, the Germans. I have come to tell you that, inasmuch as the great allied powers are making tremendous sacrifices, and are shedding streams of blood for the sake of saving you, and making you free, it is your duty also as a small Christian Nation to continue in the war, and fight as you have so splendidly fought in the past. I have been sent by my government to declare to you as well as to other small nations, that you are all fighting for your own freedom. I have said the same thing to the Armenians. I have just come from Van. They are continuing in their struggle for their freedom. You must all unite under one head, and do the same. And so far as the feelings of the Persian Government are concerned, you leave that matter to our legation, and to the legations of the Allied powers in Tehran.

Furthermore, all the expense of your army will be paid by the Allies. It has already been arranged with the new government of Caucasia that you shall receive all guns and ammunitions you need, and even military assistance, if you require any.

Freedom is a very precious and costly possession. It has always been bought by sacrifices. You must also be willing to do the same if you wish to possess your fatherland, where honey and milk flow.”

J. Joseph, The Nestorians, 132.

Lady Surma, Assyrian Church Customs, 81; Surma relates an eyewitness account of the Russian Major Kondratoff.

L. Surma, 82-83.

League of Nations :The Settlement of the Assyrians, a Work of Humanity and Appeasement, Geneva, 1935, Information Section, 12.

Al-Istqlal, no. 1929, June 29, 1933.

Abdul-Massih Saadi 

This paper was read by Mr. Abdul-Massih Saadi, Director of the Institute of Syriac Studies in Chicago, at the Genocide Conference organized by Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.

Published by Zinda Magazine
Volume V. Issue 31
November 9, 1999



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